Iresiphi yesepha ye-Indigo yeSepha eBlue Blue

Esi sithuba sinokuqulatha amakhonkco onxibelelwano. Isiteyitimenti esipheleleyo sokuxelwa silapha. Tsibela eRipipe Phrinta iresiphi

Iindlela ezimbini zokusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha.

Ngokwemvelo ukufaka imibala kwisepha kufana nokubeka umlingo ngaphezulu komlingo. Inkqubo yokwenza isepha ngokwayo iyamangalisa kodwa ukusebenzisa amagqabi, iingcambu, iintyatyambo, kunye nodongwe ukuze uthinte imivalo yakho ye-hues emangalisayo ngumdlalo webhola opheleleyo. Ndabelana kakhulu izimvo zesepha zemvelo apha kwi-Lovely Greens, kodwa enye endonwabe ngayo yile recipe yesepha ye-indigo. Iresiphi ayililo igama layo nangona ingezizo iindlela ezimbini onokuzisebenzisa ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Iindlela onokuzisebenzisa phantse kuyo nayiphi na iresiphi yendalo yesepha. Ndazisa kwakhona indlela yesithathu yokwenza umthunzi ohlaza okwesibhakabhaka ngokusebenzisa iintlobo ezimbini ezahlukeneyo ze-indigo.

wajonga ngaphaya kwempazamo yam

Imiyalelo engezantsi yenzelwe inkqubo yokupheka yesepha. Unokusebenzisa nayiphi na iresiphi enemibala ekhanyayo oyikhethileyo, kodwa kuthintele ukusebenzisa ezo ziphezulu kwioyile yegolide okanye emnyama. Umbala walezo zithako unokuthi uthinte isepha yakho eluhlaza. Kwakhona unakekele ukuba usebenzisa i-indigo esekwe kwisityalo kwisepha yemvelo. I-indigo eyenziwayo ixhaphake kakhulu kodwa ayikhuselekanga ukuyisebenzisa kwisepha okanye kwiimveliso zokhathalelo lomntu.



Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

Zombini iisepha zinemibala zisebenzisa i-indigo, kodwa sebenzisa iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokubala imibala



Iresiphi yendalo yeBlue Blue

Ndiqale ndikwazisa ukuba wenze isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kwindawo yam iresiphi yesepha . Nangona isepha evuthiweyo ingumbala we-denim wendalo ithandekayo, ufuna umgubo ongaphezulu kwaye umbala wokugqibela awunamandla kunokuba usebenzise indigo. Isepha yoboya ine-hue ethambileyo endiyithandayo kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo inendawo yayo. Iresiphi yesepha ye-indigo iya kukunika ubunzulu obuninzi, kubandakanya i-denim eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nosana oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka.

Isetyenziswe kokubini kulusu nakwimigca yokudaya, uboya ( Isatis tinctoria kunye ne-indigo ( Indigofera tinctoria) zizityalo ezikhuselekileyo zedayi ezinembali ende yokusetyenziswa. Zombini zizityebi kwikhompawundi ebizwa ngokuba yi-indigotin kunye nendlela abantu abafunde ngayo ukuyikhupha emagqabini. Kungenxa yokuba ukuyikhupha kumagqabi aluhlaza ngokwakho kunokuba lide, kube nzima, kwaye inkqubo emdaka . Ngethamsanqa, sinako ukuthenga umgubo ekulungeleyo ukuwusebenzisa olungele ukudaya amalaphu, ukuze uwasebenzise kubugcisa, nakwisepha yendalo ngokwendalo.



Kwisepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, ndiye ndaqala ngomgubo we-indigo othengwe kwidayer yendalo yendwangu. Inani elincinci lale powder iluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka lihamba indlela ende, kwaye ulumke, inokuba mbi! Enye yejogu zam zeplastiki ziseluhlaza ngenxa yokuyisebenzisa. Ukufumana isepha emnyama emnyama kumfanekiso ongentla, ndongeze indigo ngexesha lokwenza isepha. Ukufumana isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, bendiqala ukufaka i-indigo kwioyile engamanzi iiveki ezintandathu.

Ikhosi yoLusu lweBhotile Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

I-Indigofera tinctoria isetyenziselwe amawaka eminyaka ukuya kwilaphu lendalo kunye nemicu eluhlaza

I-Indigo sisityalo sedayi yendalo

Zininzi iintlobo zezityalo esiqhele ukuzibiza ngokuba yi-indigo, kodwa le ndiyisebenzisayo yile Indigofera tinctoria . Xa usebenza nezityalo, okanye izinto ezisekwe kwizityalo, kubalulekile ukuba uhlale uchonga igama lesiLatin endaweni yesiqhelo. Oko kuyinyani ngakumbi xa kuziwa ekusebenziseni kubo okanye kwimizimba yethu.



Ukuba ungathanda ukuzama ukukhula kunye nokusebenzisa i-indigo yasekhaya, yazi ukuba ikhaya layo likwiitropiki. Oko kuthetha ukuba kufuneka ube nemozulu eshushu kwaye eshushu okanye ukwazi ukulinganisa ezo meko nge-polytunnel okanye greenhouse. I-Indigo sisityalo esihlala siluhlaza esingasoloko sikhula esingakhula sibe ziimitha ezi-2 ubude, kwindawo elungileyo, kunye nokhathalelo olufanelekileyo. Ineentyatyambo ezintle ezipinki kunye noTeresinha Roberts we Ii-Wildcolours icebisa ukuba kuvunwe amagqabi nje phambi kokuba kuvulwe. Ukwathi awunakukwazi ukuvuna kwizityalo zakho de kube sekupheleni konyaka wesibini wokukhula kwaye ngelo xesha kuya kufuneka uthathe isiqingatha okanye ngaphantsi kwamagqabi.

Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

I-oyile ye-Pomace yeoyile egalelwe umgubo we-indigo ujika umbala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka

Uyisebenzisa kanjani i-Indigo kwisepha

Ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka nge-indigo kulula, kwaye kukho iindlela ezimbalwa zokwenza. Eyona ndlela ilula kukuxuba inani elincinci le-indigo powder kwinxalenye yeoyile yakho engamanzi kwiresiphi yesepha. Ungayigungxula ioyile eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ulandelele kwaye uthule isepha eblue kwi-mold. Ukuba uqinisekisa ukuba isepha ngokupheleleyo gel, umbala uya kuba kakhulu ngakumbi kakhulu. Xa ndisithi isixa esincinci, oko kuthetha ukuba kungaphantsi kwe-1/2 tsp ngeponti nganye (i-454g) yeoyile yakho yokwenza isepha kwaye kungcono ukuthulula ioyile enemibala ngesihlungulo ukuze ususe naziphi na izihlunu. Sebenzisa okungaphezulu kunoko kwaye imivalo yakho iya kuba luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kakhulu kodwa i-lather nayo iya kuba luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kwaye inokungcolisa ibhafu yakho okanye amalaphu okuhlamba. Ukuvutha kwe-indigo kuya kuyisusa isepha yakho kwaye kunokuvela ngelixa uhlamba.

Ukufumana umbala onamandla ngakumbi, sukulinda ukongeza i-indigo. Hlanganisa umgubo kunye ne-sodium hydroxide uze wenze isisombululo sakho se-lye kunye nayo njengesiqhelo. Uya kuqaphela ivumba elibi xa usenza isisombululo sakho se-lye nge-indigo kodwa elo vumba alihlali kwimivalo. Ukongeza i-indigo kwisisombululo se-lye kubonakala ngathi yeyona ndlela ithandwayo ngabenzi besepha. Umbala ucacile ngakumbi, kodwa icala elisezantsi kukuba yonke isepha yakho iya kuba ngumbala ofanayo. Ndiyazithanda uyilo lwesepha olulula ke kulungile ngam, kodwa ukuba ufuna ukongeza i-swirls okanye iileya kwibhetshi yakho, unokufuna indlela yokuqala.

Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

Ngenye ye-blues enamandla kakhulu, yongeza i-indigo powder ngqo kwisisombululo sakho se-lye eshushu

Iingoma zamaKristu zokuqala zegitare

Iindlela ezimbini ezingakumbi zokusebenzisa i-Indigo kwiSepha

Enye indlela abenzi besepha abasebenzisa ngayo i-indigo kukwenza ukunciphisa i-indigo. Kwipani yentsimbi engenasici, yongeza icephe elinye le-indigo powder kwisiqingatha sendebe yamanzi acocekileyo. Yizisa kwimathumba kwaye uyinciphise ngesiqingatha, okanye kude kube ulwelo luhambelana ne-inki. Yongeza oku kuncitshiswa ngokulahla, ukulandelela, de ufumane umbala owufunayo.

Indlela yokugqibela kukusebenzisa i-indigo ukuthambisa ngokwendalo isahlulo seoyile esingamanzi seresiphi yakho eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Emva koko usebenzisa ioyile enemibala ukwenza isepha yakho njengesiqhelo. Kwakhona, ukufakela nayiphi na isepha ye-indigo kuya kuqinisa umbala. Okungakumbi koku ngakumbi ngezantsi.

Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

I-indigo eluhlaza eluhlaza kunye neblue iya kukunika imibala eyahlukileyo yesepha

Kutheni i-Indigo Powder yam eluhlaza?

I-Indigo ayisetyenziswanga ngokubanzi njengombala wendalo wesepha kodwa isetyenziselwa ezinye izizathu ezibini- ukudaya amalaphu aluhlaza kunye nokudaya iinwele ezimnyama. Ungabamba i-indigo emsulwa kuwo omabini la macandelo kodwa uya kuqaphela ukuba ezi zibini zihluke ngokupheleleyo. I-indigo ethengiweyo yokwalela umbala kwiinwele iluhlaza! Ayisiyiyo kanye into elindelwe ngabantu abaninzi xa be-odola ukwenza isepha. Umgubo we-indigo oluhlaza ngamagqabi omisiweyo nacoliweyo esityalo se-indigo. Ungayisebenzisa kunye ne-henna ukuthinta iinwele ezimnyama, kodwa ayizukufaka umbala kwisepha yakho eblowu. Endaweni yoko, inokuthinta isepha umbala oluhlaza-mbala othi undikhumbuze ngomgubo wodongwe wolwandle ofileyo.

Ubunzulu be-indigo olungumgubo yiloo nto uyifunayo ngokwemvelo isepha ngombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Le indigo ivela kwisityalo esinye njenge-indigo eluhlaza kodwa ifakwe emanzini, iyabila, kwaye inyangwe ngekalika ukuze ikhuphe umbala oluhlaza oqaqambileyo. Uyayibona yonke inkqubo yesiqhelo yokwenza indigo eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kumagqabi Apha . Iziphumo zale nkqubo kukuncamathisela okunokumiswa kuze kutsalwe umgubo. Nangona kunokwenzeka ukuvumba umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ukwenza iblue, khange ndizame. Ndiyaqonda ukuba inokudideka kwaye inzima nangona, kwaye iziphumo (ngabokuqala ixesha ubuncinci) azisoloko ziphumelela.

Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

Umbala wesepha ngombala oluhlaza we-indigo umgubo osekhohlo, kunye neblue indigo powder ekunene

Sebenzisa zombini iGreen kunye neBlue Indigo kwiSoapmaking

Khange ndikwazi ukufumana naziphi na iifoto zokuba isepha eluhlaza ye-indigo ikhangeleka njani, ke bekufuneka ndizenzele eyam. Ifoto oyibonayo ngasentla ineziphumo zala bhetshi yasekhohlo. Ukufezekisa loo mthunzi uluhlaza-grey ndixube i-1 tsp ye-indigo eluhlaza kwinxalenye yeoyile ye-olive ye-1-lb yesepha. Ndiyongeze ngokulandelelana kunye ne-oveni ukuyicoca ukuze iqiniseke ukuba ijeliwe. Waphuma ekubumbeni lo mbala kwaye ugcine loo mthunzi ngoku ngaphezulu kwenyanga. Ayinguye wonke umntu oya kuwuthanda umbala kodwa ngokuqinisekileyo ndiyayenza! Kungumthunzi wangoku kwaye umhle ongathathi hlangothi endicinga ukuba ungasebenza kakuhle kum thatha isepha iresiphi .

Ndenze nam ndacinga. Kuza kwenzeka ntoni xa ndixuba i-indigo eluhlaza kunye neblue? Isiphumo sesepha yesithathu (ukusuka ekhohlo) kwifoto engezantsi. Yenza i-sage-blue ethandekayo ebonakala ngathi yeyangoku kwaye yendalo. Umbala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka othelekiswa neblues ephunyezwe nge-indigo nje. Kwisepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka engezantsi, ndenze ibhetshi eyi-1-lb yam iresiphi yesepha eco-friendly (Ndisebenzise leresiphi yazo zonke iibhendi zesepha ze-indigo). Ukulandela umkhondo, ndongeze i-1/2 tsp ye-indigo eluhlaza kunye ne-1/8 tsp ye-indigo eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka endixube kwiTispuni yeoyile ye-pomace yeoyile.

Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

Iibhetshi ezimbini zesepha ezenziwe ngombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ngasekhohlo. Ngasekunene kude yisepha eyenziwe nge-indigo eluhlaza kuphela. Okwesibini ukusuka ekunene yisepha eyenziwe ngombala oluhlaza kunye nohlaza okwesibhakabhaka.

Iresiphi yesepha yeIndigo

Makhe sisebenzise i-indigo ukwenza i-shades eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka nangona. Olo luhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ulubonayo ngasentla kunye nosana olumbala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ecaleni kwalo. Zombini zisebenzisa malunga nexabiso elifanayo le-indigo ukwenza, kwaye umbala oluhlaza mnyama unamachaphaza amancinci kuwo wonke. Ibha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ayinazicacisi, ke ikwayinto ekufuneka igcinwe engqondweni ukuba ungathanda ukwenza isepha ye-indigo. Iindlela nganye nganye ingezantsi kwaye ugcine engqondweni ukuba abanye abenzi besepha baxele umbala wesepha yabo ye-indigo ephela ngokuhamba kwexesha. Abanye ababonakali ngathi banalo ngxaki. Kukucingela nje, kodwa inokwenzeka ukuba inento yokwenza nomgangatho we-indigo.

Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

I-indigo Soap Recipe (indlela yesisombululo se-lye)

Imifuno emnandi Isepha eluhlaza yendalo eyenziwe ngeVegan kunye neoyile engenasoyile kwaye akukho livumba. Ulwazi lobuchwephesha: I-1lb / 454g ibhetshi-5% ye-superfat-35.7% isaphulelo samanzi 5ukusuka3IivotiPhrinta iresiphi Phinda iresiphi Ixesha lokulungiselela30 imiz Ixesha lokupheka30 imiz Ukuphilisa ixesha28 d Ixesha lilonke1 hr Iinkonzo6 imivalo

Izixhobo

Izithako 1x2x3x

Isisombululo seLye

Iioyile eziqinileyo

Iioyile ezingamanzi

Imiyalelo

  • Lungisa indawo yakho yokusebenza ngezixhobo zakho kunye nezixhobo. Beka iiglavu zerabha, ukhuseleko lwamehlo, kunye nefaskoti. Qaphela ngononophelo izithako. Ioyile eqinileyo epanini, ioyile engamanzi kwijagi, amanzi aye kwenye ingqayi ebonisa ubushushu, kunye nelye kwesinye isitya.
  • Gxotha i-indigo kwiikristali ze-lye ezomileyo. I-Indigo ayisasazeki kakuhle emanzini kwaye uya kuqaphela ukuba emva kwenyathelo elilandelayo. Ukuxuba i-indigo kunye neliya ngeli nqanaba kuya kunceda ngokudibanisa nangona.
  • Emva koko, nyibilikisa i-lye (Sodium hydroxide) crystals emanzini. Kwindawo enomoya, ngaphandle kungcono, uthele i-lye crystals emanzini kwaye ucofe kakuhle. Kuya kubakho ubushushu obuninzi kunye nomphunga ke lumka. Zama ukungaphefumli. Shiya ngaphandle kwindawo ekhuselekileyo, okanye kwisitya samanzi esinzulu ukupholisa.
  • Nyibilikisa iioyile eziqinileyo kwipani yentsimbi engatyiwa bubushushu obuphantsi kakhulu. Xa unyibilikisiwe, susa emlilweni kwaye usete kwi-potholder. Thela ioyile engamanzi. Ukuba unayo i-olive kunye ne-castor oyile kwisitya esinye, zivuse ndawonye ngaphambi kokuba ugalele epanini. Ioyile yeCastor intle kwaye kulula ukuyigalela xa ixutywe neoyile elula.
  • Linganisa amaqondo obushushu e-indigo lye-amanzi kunye neeoyile. Kuya kufuneka ujonge ukupholisa malunga ne-110-120 ° F / 43-49 ° C.
  • Yongeza isisombululo se-indigo lye kwipani yeoyile. Ukuthintela ukudala amaqamza omoya, galela isisombululo se-lye ecaleni kwe-stick blender yakho okanye i-spatula. Le ndlela icothayo kwaye icothayo yindlela abenzi besepha abenza ngayo ukudala imivalo ejongeka ngobungcali enokungafezeki okumbalwa.
  • Dipha i-blender yakho yokuntywila epanini kwaye icinyiwe, uvuselele umxube. Emva koko, yizise kumbindi wepani, kwaye ngezandla zakho zozibini, yibambe ezantsi epanini kwaye uyibhloke imizuzwana nje embalwa. Yicime kwaye ushukumise isepha ukubetha, usebenzisa i-blender njengecephe. Phinda ude umxube ujiye uye 'kuTrace'. Kulapho i-batter ishiya umzila wokwahlula ngaphezulu. Ukungqinelana kuya kufana ne-custard ebhityileyo.
  • Ukusebenza ngokukhawuleza, uthele isepha kwi-mold. Yinike itepu ukuyilungisa. Ndisebenzisa i-mold-silicone mold-six-mold mold edweliswe kwiluhlu lwezixhobo kule recipe. Zive ukhululekile ukusebenzisa enye ukhetho lwakho nangona.
  • Qinisekisa iisepha zakho zeesepha ukuze ufumane isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Ngomngundo omncinci wesilicone umngundo yinto encinci ukuhambisa isepha kunakwisonka okanye kumngundo omkhulu. Into endiyenzayo ndibeka isikhunta kwibhodi yokusika eyenziwe ngomthi (kuyacetyiswa ukuba ukhusele iinkuni ngogcino lwephepha elinobungqina begrisi). Emva koko ndiyibeke ehovini ngo-170 ° F / 77 ° C kwaye ndiyigcine kubushushu kangangesiqingatha seyure, ukuba ayiyiyure epheleleyo. Ndigweba ixesha ngokuba ndikhangele rhoqo kwaye ndikhangele ukuze ndibone ukuba isepha yokubetha ijika umbala omnyama kuyo yonke indawo. Emva koko, ndiza kuyicima i-oveni kwaye ndiyishiye isepha ngaphakathi ubusuku bonke.
  • Ngomso olandelayo, thatha isepha kwi-oven uze usethe indawo yokuphumla ngolunye usuku. Nje ukuba kudlule iiyure ezingama-48, pop isepha ngaphandle kokubumba.
  • Philisa imivalo kangangeentsuku ezingama-28. Ukunyanga kuthetha ukushiya imivalo ibekwe kwindawo ekhuselekileyo ngaphandle kwelanga ngqo kunye nendawo enomoya. Oku kuvumela umxholo wamanzi ongezelelweyo ukuba aphume aphele ngokupheleleyo. Apha zi imiyalelo epheleleyo yokunyanga isepha .
Igama elingundoqoisepha, iresiphi yesepha Uzamile le recipe? Sazise njani! Iindlela zokusebenzisa i-indigo ukwenza isepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye nokwazisa ukusebenzisa umgubo we-indigo eluhlaza ekwenzeni isepha #soaprecipe #naturalsoapcolorant

Ukufakwa ngaphakathi kweoyile ye-indigo elula kuyenzile le mibhobho yesepha eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka

Ukwenza isepha ye-Indigo ngeoyile egalelweyo

Ukwenza imivalo eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka yesepha ye-indigo ndisebenzise enye indlela. Ngelixa i-indigo inganyibiliki ngokukodwa emanzini, iya kufaka kwioyile ephethe ulwelo. Zonke ioyile ze-pomace zeoyile endandizisebenzisa ukwenza le bhetshi yafakwa i-indigo kunye nombala othandekayo we-turquoise owubonayo kwicephe. Ukwenza ioyile efakwe i-indigo, ndidibanise i-1/2 tsp indigo kunye ne-17.6 oz / 500g yeoyile yomnquma. I-oyile ye-Pomace ye-oyile ibalulekile kuba ilula ngombala kune-extra virgin kwaye ke ayinakuphazamisa umbala wokugqibela. Ndayishiya ingqayi yeglasi kwindawo emnyama ndaza ndayishukumisa rhoqo kwiintsuku ezimbalwa. Ndenze oku inyanga yonke ngaphambi kokuba ndenze isepha.

Ukwenza isepha ye-indigo ngeoyile efakiweyo, sukuyigungqisa ingqayi yeoyile ngosuku lokwenza isepha. Endaweni yoko, galela kancinci isixa seoyile osifunayo, ushiye intlenge ye-indigo emazantsi ebhotile. Yenza ibhetshi yakho yesepha ( nantsi iresiphi endiyisebenzisileyo ), njengesiqhelo, endaweni yeoyile yesiqhelo yomnquma kwiresiphi yeoyile efakelwe i-indigo. Nangona unokusebenzisa nje ukubuyisela inxenye, yiya kuyo kwaye uyitshintshe xa unqwenela. Qiniseka ukuba iigels zesepha ukuba ufuna ukufumana owona mbala ubalaseleyo.

yenziwa ntoni lye

Amanqaku Umdla